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Chronology of the ARPANET - INTERNET

  Currently, Internet History is not written yet, though it has got a lot of notes, and individual articles. All these materials are in the Internet [1,2,3]; appeared even dissertation on its history.

  Let us try for years to consider the major events that were related to the Internet. In 1962, ARPA research on military use of computer technology led by Dr. Liklayder (JCR Licklider), who suggested that for these purposes to use the interaction of available public computers. He was instrumental in bringing these works of the private sector and university researchers.

  In the same year there was a report made by Paul Baran (Paul Baran) at the RAND Corporation commissioned by the Air Force, On Distribution Communications, which examined various models of communication systems and assess their viability. The report proposed a decentralized control system and communications, which continued to function in case of failure of the system. One of the recommendations of the author dealt with the construction of the transmission of digital data for a large number of users.

  Soon the main focus of research conducted by the agency were computer networks. The main idea was to construct a network of peers, each of which was to have its own components for receiving, processing and formation of reports that would provide the high survivability of the network even if a failure of the set of nodes. The first experiments to integrate remote sites were held in 1965, when computers were connected to TX-2 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT Lincoln Lab) and Q-32 Corporation SDC (System Development Corporation) in Santa Monica. True, the packet exchange between them at this time has not yet been conducted, the exchange was carried out character by character.

  In 1967, the symposium ACM (Association for Computer Machinery) was presented a plan to create a national network with packet transmission. Shortly after the symposium Roberts (Lawrence G. Roberts) published a plan to build such a network - ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork), and already in 1969 the Department of Defense approved the ARPANET as the lead organization for research in computer networks.

  The first node of the new network became UCLA-center trials network, and soon joined Stanford Research Institute (SRI), UCSB - Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics (University of Santa Barbara) and the University of Utah. At sites used by IMP (Interface Message Processor), developed by the corporation Bolt Baranec Newman, Inc (BBN). Were carried out first transfer characters from one machine to another. Appeared first RFC (Request for Comments) - Host Software S. Crocker (S. Crocker). In the ATT Lab has developed an operating system UNIX. This year may be considered the beginning of the year the network revolution.

  Since 1970, ARPANET hosts started to be used to exchange NCP - Network Control Protocol. In early 1971 the network was already 15 nodes: UCLA, SRI, UCSB, University of Utah, BBN, MIT, RAND, SDC, Harvard Lincoln Lab., Stanford, UIU (C), CWRI, CMU, NASA / A, united 1923 host. In the same year Tomlinson (Ray Tomlinson) from BBN suggested mail program to send messages across the network. At the University of Hawaii under the leadership of N. Abrahamson (N. Abrahamson) was developed ALONAnet.

  In 1972 at the International Conference on Computers and Communications demonstrated the interaction of TIP (Terminal Interface Processor) c 40 cars online. In the same year group has been established INWG (InterNetworking Working Group), chaired by Professor Stanford University Kirfa Vinton (Vinton Cerf) for addressing the development necessary to harmonize the various protocols. Kirfom with a group of graduate students has developed a group of communication protocols, which later turned into a TCP / IP. I knew that the TCP / IP protocol will become an international industry standard, used by millions of people, - noted Vladimir Kirf in 1994 - I would have chosen more than 32-bit address space, and carefully treated to high-speed environments with a long delay [ 5]. Was published specification Telnet (RFC 454).

  This year, the first commercial version of UNIX, written in C. The success of UNIX surpassed all rozhidaniya. The first international connections to ARPANET were made in 1973, when the network connected machines from England (University College of London) and Norway (Rogee Radar Establishment). In the same year launched a satellite communications link with the University of Hawaii. In September 1973 Kirf and Katz (Kahn) presented the main ideas of the national network at the meeting INWG in England and published the article A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunications, which contained details of program design Transmission Control (Transmission Control Program). In mid-1975, DARPA has come to the conclusion that the ARPANET is stable, and Internet governance was transferred to DCA (Defence Communications Agency, now known as DISA - Defence Information Systems Agency).

  In 1976, Lick Mike (Mike Lesk) from ATT Bell Labs has developed a protocol UUCP (Unix-to-Unix Copy), and a year later, this report was supplied with the UNIX version 7, version UUCP Berkeley was implemented later. The TCP / IP became widely used to connect to the ARPANET. This time period was characterized by general growth in the number of different networks. In 1977 he appeared THEORYNET, developed by L. Landweber (L. Landweber) from Vinskonsinskogo University.

  In a network of about 100 computer scientists, used e-mail and Telnet. Specification was published the e-mail (RFC 733). Timshare (Timshare) founded Tymnet. A demonstration of interaction ARPANET, PRNET (Packet Radio Net), Ethernet and SATNET (Satellite Net-work) on the basis of the protocols Internet. In 1979 based on UUCP was launched USENET. Network PRNET came under the auspices of DARPA.

  ARPANET now actually consisted of two overlapping networks. One was working for researchers ARPA, the other was used for testing and development.

  In January 1981, in order to determine the degree of suitability for ministry of defense offered by the various developers of computer systems was established Center of Computer Security of the Ministry of Defence (DSC - Defence Security Center). Began operation BITNET (Because It's Time NETwork) and CSNET.

  In 1982, the DCA and ARPA established as the basis of network Internet Protocol (IP) and Trans-mission Control Protocol (TCP).

The U.S. Defense Department on Jan. 1, 1983 announced the TCP / IP to their standard. It was announced that the ARPANET finished the research stage, but continues to be led by DARPA and DCA. Introduction to the University of Wisconsin developed a name server is no longer required from the users knowledge of digital address of the machine. In the same year the entire ARPANET was transferred from NCP to TCP / IP. Stood out from the ARPANET network MILNET (Military Network), rednaznachennaya only for the exchange of military information. Appeared desktop workstations c OS Berkeley UNIX, which included a program of IP-connection. Was created IAB (Internet Activities Board). The next version of OS UNIX Berkeley release 4.2 BSD included TCP / IP. Was commissioned in the gateway between the ARPANET and CSNET.

  In 1984 he introduced a system of DNS (Domain Name System). The total number of hosts on the network has exceeded 1,000. In September 1985, DSC was renamed the National Centre for Computer Security - NCSC (National Computer Security Center), which came under the management of the Agency of National
Security - NSA (National Security Agency). Was created by NSF (National Science Foundation), which was intended to build a network CSNET (Computer Science Network) for the association of national computing centers, many of whom had no access to ARPANET.

  Work on the formation of CSNET intensified in 1986, when the creation of centers for supercomputing. As a result, this network has been established NSFNET backbone with a data transfer rate, 56 kbps. Network based on the 5 super-computing centers in Princeton, Pittsburgh, UCSD, NCSA and Cornell University. This allowed us to significantly increase the amount of data transferred between universities. Was developed and implemented NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) to improve the performance of news Usenet. Number of hosts in 1987 exceeded 10000. Number of BITNET hosts had reached 1,000. NSFNET began building a consortium of IBM, MCI and MERIT.

  November 2, 1988 graduate of Cornell University's Robert Tappan Morris launched its program in the network, which is due to the mistakes of the early uncontrolled spread of infection and multiple network nodes. As a result, were infected with about 6200 machines, which accounted for 7.3% of the total number of machines in the network. After analyzing the events of DARPA formed the CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team). Network NSFNET backbone has moved to speed T1 (1,544 Mbps). NSFNET connected to the network, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Finland, France and Sweden. In 1989, the number of hosts exceeded 100,000. Under the auspices of the IAB are formed by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) and IRTF (Internet Research Task Force).

  Joins the network in Australia, Britain, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and Japan.

 In 1990, ARPANET itself ceased to exist, its functions continued to NSFNET. Joins the network Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Greece, India, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and South Korea.

 In 1991, Mainsky University P. Lindner (Paul Lindner) and Mark MakKahil (Mark P. McCahill) developed a program for Gopher. At CERN (Centre
European pour la Recherche Nucleare) Tim Bernes-Lee (Tim Berness-Lee) has developed a World-Wide Web (WWW). Philip Zimmermann (Philip Zimmermen) implemented the PGP (Pretty Good Privacy). Network NFSNET began to use highways at speeds of T3 (44,736 Mbps). Traffic began to make 10 billion packets per month, amounting to 1 trillion bytes / month. Joins the network, Hungary, Hong Kong, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Singapore,
Taiwan, Tunisia, Czech Republic and South Africa.

  Number of hosts in 1992 exceeded one million. Service IAB (Internet Activities Board) was reorganized into the Internet Architecture Board and become part of public Internet (Internet Society). Joins the network, Venezuela, Cameroon, Cyprus, Kuwait, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Thailand, Ecuador and Venezuela.

  In 1993, NSF created InterNIC to implement specific services Internet: directory service and database service registration and information service. By the NSFNET connected Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Ghana, Guam, Egypt, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Costa Rica, Liechtenstein, United Arab Emirates, Peru, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, Fiji and, finally, Russia. Beginning in 1994, began trading activity across the network. NSFNET traffic exceeds 10 trillion bytes per month. In popularity among users of WWW bypassed Telnet. Joins the network, Algeria, Armenia, Bermuda, Burkina Faso, Jamaica, Lebanon, Lithuania, China, Colombia, Morocco, Mass., Nicaragua, Niger, New Caledonia, Panama, Senegal, Uzbekistan, Uruguay, Philippines, Sri Lanka and French Polynesia.

  Since 1995, the registration of domain names has ceased to be free. Starting from September 14 for registration, which was previously subsidized by the NSF, a fee of $ 50. Since April, NSFNET, which existed only because of the government, disappeared, and was installed commercial system.

  Internet continued to exist. On January 1, 1996 network combines 9,472,000 hosts.

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